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Osphronemus Goramy Classification Essay

Home » Osphronemus goramy (Giant Gouramy)

Taxonomy [top]


Scientific Name:Osphronemus goramy Lacepède, 1801
Common Name(s):
EnglishGiant Gouramy
Osphromenus notatus Cuvier (ex Kuhl & van Hasslet), 1831
Trichopodus mentum Lacepède (ex Commerson), 1801
Taxonomic Source(s):Kottelat, M. 2013. The fishes of the inland waters of southeast Asia: a catalogue and core bibiography of the fishes known to occur in freshwaters, mangroves and estuaries. Raffles Bulletin of Zoology Supplement No. 27: 1-663.

Assessment Information [top]

Red List Category & Criteria: Least Concern ver 3.1
Year Published:2012
Date Assessed:2011-03-13
Assessor(s):Vidthayanon, C.
Reviewer(s):Smith, K. & Allen, D.J.
This locally common fish is widespread and well adaptive to impounded waters, its popularity on foodfish and ornamental and obtained both from wild caught and cultured. This species is abundant in all suitable habitats, it is assessed as Least Concern.

Geographic Range [top]

Range Description:The species is widely distributed from the lower Mekong basin (Cambodia and Viet Nam) to the Mae Khlong in Thailand, and the Malay Peninsula and Indonesia (Java, Sumatra and Kalimantan (e.g., the Kapuas River; Kottelat and Widjanarti 2005). The species has been widely introduced to several countries for aquaculture purposes. Apparently absent in Sarawak and presence in Sabah may be due to relatively late introductions.
Countries occurrence:
Cambodia; Indonesia (Jawa, Kalimantan, Sumatera); Malaysia (Peninsular Malaysia, Sabah - Present - Origin Uncertain); Singapore; Thailand; Viet Nam
Additional data:
Lower elevation limit (metres):10
Upper elevation limit (metres):60
Range Map:Click here to open the map viewer and explore range.

Population [top]

Population:Locally common in suitable habitats all of its range.
Current Population Trend:Stable
Additional data:
Population severely fragmented:No

Habitat and Ecology [top]

Habitat and Ecology:Inhabits lowland rivers, marshlands to submontane streams. Well adaptive to impounded waters.

Use and Trade [top]

Use and Trade: A popular foodfish in southeast Asia, both from wild captive and cultured stocks, frequently seen in the aquarium trade.

Threats [top]

Major Threat(s): Wetland degradation and pollution are possible threats to this fish, but it is not considered threatened across its range.

Conservation Actions [top]

Conservation Actions: None required, however populations and habitats should be monitored.

Classification / Names Common names | Synonyms | Catalog of Fishes (gen., sp.) | ITIS | CoL | WoRMS | Cloffa

Actinopterygii (ray-finned fishes) > Perciformes (Perch-likes) > Osphronemidae (Gouramies) > Osphroneminae
Etymology: Osphronemus:Greek, osphra = smell + Greek, nema = filament; because of the olfactory organs (Ref. 45335).   More on author: Lacepède.

Environment / Climate / Range Ecology

Freshwater; brackish; benthopelagic; pH range: 6.5 - 8.0; dH range: ? - 25; depth range 10 - ? m (Ref. 9987).   Tropical; 20°C - 30°C (Ref. 13371); 6°N - 9°S

Distribution Countries | FAO areas | Ecosystems | Occurrences | Point map | Introductions | Faunafri

Asia: probably limited to Sumatra, Borneo, Java, the Malay Peninsula, Thailand and Indochina (Mekong basin). Has been introduced to several countries for aquaculture purposes. Apparently absent in Sarawak and presence in Sabah may be due to relatively late introductions.

Size / Weight / Age

Maturity: Lm ?  range ? - ? cm
Max length : 70.0 cm SL male/unsexed; (Ref. 12693); common length : 45.0 cm SL male/unsexed; (Ref. 12693)

Short description Morphology | Morphometrics

Dorsalspines (total): 12 - 14; Dorsalsoft rays (total): 10-13; Analspines: 9-13; Analsoft rays: 18 - 21; Vertebrae: 30 - 31. With 8-10 complete dark vertical bars in juvenile color phase; adults without vertical bars or sexual dichromatism, both sexes drab; transverse scale rows usually 6.1.12; dorsal fin spines usually 12-13 (rarely 11 or 14); soft-rayed portion of anal fin greatly enlarged, its distal margin parallel to distal margin of caudal fin; caudal fin rounded or obtusely rounded, not truncate or emarginate (Ref. 7425). Pelvic fins with first soft ray prolonged into a thread-like tentacle reaching posteriorly to or beyond hind margin of caudal fin.

Inhabits swamps, lakes and rivers (Ref. 9987), among vegetation (Ref. 56749). Enters flooded forest (Ref. 9497). Found in medium to large rivers and stagnant water bodies including sluggish flowing canals (Ref. 12975). Omnivorous. Feeds on both plants and animals such as some aquatic weeds, fish, frogs, earthworms and sometimes dead animals (Ref. 6459). Can breathe moist air, so can be kept alive for long periods out of water, making it possible to distribute it in areas lacking a cold chain (Ref. 9987). Was reported from miocene deposits in Central Sumatra (Ref. 7426). Utilized fresh and eaten steamed, pan-fried and baked (Ref. 9987).

Life cycle and mating behavior Maturity | Reproduction | Spawning | Eggs | Fecundity | Larvae

Makes nests of bubbles in which the eggs and larvae float, protected by the male (Ref. 9987).

Main reference Upload your references | References | Coordinator | Collaborators

Roberts, T.R., 1992. Systematic revision of the Southeast Asian anabantoid fish genus Osphronemus, with descriptions of two new species. Ichthyol. Explor. Freshwat. 2(4):351-360. (Ref. 7425)

CITES (Ref. 115941)

Not Evaluated

CMS (Ref. 116361)

Not Evaluated

Threat to humans


Human uses

Fisheries: commercial; aquaculture: commercial; aquarium: commercial

FAO(Aquaculture: production; fisheries: production; publication : search) | FisheriesWiki | Sea Around Us


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Summary page | Point data | Common names | Photos

Internet sources

Alien/Invasive Species database | Aquatic Commons | BHL | Cloffa | Websites from users | Check FishWatcher | CISTI | Catalog of Fishes (gen., sp.) | DiscoverLife | ECOTOX | Faunafri | Fishtrace | GenBank(genome, nucleotide) | GloBI | GOBASE | Google Books | Google Scholar | Google | IGFA World Record | MitoFish | Otolith Atlas of Taiwan Fishes | Public aquariums | PubMed | Reef Life Survey | Scirus | SeaLifeBase | Tree of Life | Wikipedia(Go, Search) |
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World Records Freshwater Fishing | Zoobank | Zoological Record

Estimates of some properties based on models

Phylogenetic diversity index (Ref. 82805):  PD50 = 0.5625   [Uniqueness, from 0.5 = low to 2.0 = high].

Bayesian length-weight: a=0.01698 (0.00673 - 0.04284), b=3.01 (2.79 - 3.23), in cm Total Length, based on LWR estimates for this (Sub)family-body shape (Ref. 93245).

Trophic Level (Ref. 69278):  2.8   ±0.32 se; Based on food items.

Resilience (Ref. 69278):  Medium, minimum population doubling time 1.4 - 4.4 years (Assuming tm > 1).

Vulnerability (Ref. 59153):  High vulnerability (55 of 100) .

Price category (Ref. 80766):   Unknown.

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